[n° ou bulletin]
est un bulletin de Ear and hearing
[n° ou bulletin]
Ear and hearing . Vol. 41, n°4Mention de date : Juillet-aout 2020
Paru le : 02/07/2020
DépouillementsAjouter le résultat dans votre panier
Audiovisual Enhancement of Speech Perception in Noise by School-Age Children Who Are Hard of Hearing / Kaylah Lalonde in Ear and hearing, Vol. 41, n°4 (Juillet-aout 2020)
Titre : Audiovisual Enhancement of Speech Perception in Noise by School-Age Children Who Are Hard of Hearing Type de document : Article Auteurs : Kaylah Lalonde ; Ryan W. McCreery Année de publication : 2020 Article en page(s) : p. 705-719 Langues : Anglais (eng) Descripteurs : HE Vinci
Attention auditive ; Déficience auditive ; Fonctions exécutives ; Mémoire à court terme ; Perception de la parole
Perception audiovisuelle de la parole
Résumé : Objectives: The purpose of this study was to examine age- and hearing-related differences in school-age children's benefit from visual speech cues. The study addressed three questions: (1) Do age and hearing loss affect degree of audiovisual (AV) speech enhancement in school-age children? (2) Are there age- and hearing-related differences in the mechanisms underlying AV speech enhancement in school-age children? (3) What cognitive and linguistic variables predict individual differences in AV benefit among school-age children?
Design: Forty-eight children between 6 and 13 years of age (19 with mild to severe sensorineural hearing loss; 29 with normal hearing) and 14 adults with normal hearing completed measures of auditory and AV syllable detection and/or sentence recognition in a two-talker masker type and a spectrally matched noise. Children also completed standardized behavioral measures of receptive vocabulary, visuospatial working memory, and executive attention. Mixed linear modeling was used to examine effects of modality, listener group, and masker on sentence recognition accuracy and syllable detection thresholds. Pearson correlations were used to examine the relationship between individual differences in children's AV enhancement (AV-auditory-only) and age, vocabulary, working memory, executive attention, and degree of hearing loss.
Results: Significant AV enhancement was observed across all tasks, masker types, and listener groups. AV enhancement of sentence recognition was similar across maskers, but children with normal hearing exhibited less AV enhancement of sentence recognition than adults with normal hearing and children with hearing loss. AV enhancement of syllable detection was greater in the two-talker masker than the noise masker, but did not vary significantly across listener groups. Degree of hearing loss positively correlated with individual differences in AV benefit on the sentence recognition task in noise, but not on the detection task. None of the cognitive and linguistic variables correlated with individual differences in AV enhancement of syllable detection or sentence recognition.
Conclusions: Although AV benefit to syllable detection results from the use of visual speech to increase temporal expectancy, AV benefit to sentence recognition requires that an observer extracts phonetic information from the visual speech signal. The findings from this study suggest that all listener groups were equally good at using temporal cues in visual speech to detect auditory speech, but that adults with normal hearing and children with hearing loss were better than children with normal hearing at extracting phonetic information from the visual signal and/or using visual speech information to access phonetic/lexical representations in long-term memory. These results suggest that standard, auditory-only clinical speech recognition measures likely underestimate real-world speech recognition skills of children with mild to severe hearing loss.
DOI : 10.1097/AUD.0000000000000830|1 Disponible en ligne : Oui En ligne : https://login.ezproxy.vinci.be/login?url=http://ovidsp.ovid.com/ovidweb.cgi?T=JS [...] Permalink : https://bib.vinci.be/opac_css/index.php?lvl=notice_display&id=256654
in Ear and hearing > Vol. 41, n°4 (Juillet-aout 2020) . - p. 705-719[article]Minimal and Mild Hearing Loss in Children: Association with Auditory Perception, Cognition, and Communication Problems / David R. Moore in Ear and hearing, Vol. 41, n°4 (Juillet-aout 2020)
Titre : Minimal and Mild Hearing Loss in Children: Association with Auditory Perception, Cognition, and Communication Problems Type de document : Article Auteurs : David R. Moore ; Oliver Zobay ; Melanie A. Ferguson Année de publication : 2020 Article en page(s) : p. 720-732 Langues : Anglais (eng) Descripteurs : HE Vinci
Compréhension dans le bruit ; Déficience auditive ; Enfant (6-12 ans) ; Trouble d'apprentissage du langage ; Troubles de la communication
Résumé : Objectives: "Minimal" and "mild" hearing loss are the most common but least understood forms of hearing loss in children. Children with better ear hearing level as low as 30 dB HL have a global language impairment and, according to the World Health Organization, a "disabling level of hearing loss." We examined in a population of 6- to 11-year-olds how hearing level
Design: School children (n = 1638) were recruited in 4 centers across the United Kingdom. They completed a battery of hearing (audiometry, filter width, temporal envelope, speech-in-noise) and cognitive (IQ, attention, verbal memory, receptive language, reading) tests. Caregivers assessed their children's communication and listening skills. Children included in this study (702 male; 752 female) had 4 reliable tone thresholds (1, 4 kHz each ear), and no caregiver reported medical or intellectual disorder. Normal-hearing children (n = 1124, 77.1%) had all 4 thresholds and PTA =15 dB HL for at least 1 threshold, and PTA =10 dB) was found in 28.9% of those with minimal and 39.8% of those with mild hearing loss.
Results: Speech perception in noise, indexed by vowel-consonant-vowel pseudoword repetition in speech-modulated noise, was impaired in children with minimal and mild hearing loss, relative to normal-hearing children. Effect size was largest (d = 0.63) in asymmetric mild hearing loss and smallest (d = 0.21) in symmetric minimal hearing loss. Spectral (filter width) and temporal (backward masking) perceptions were impaired in children with both forms of hearing loss, but suprathreshold perception generally related only weakly to PTA. Speech-in-noise (nonsense syllables) and language (pseudoword repetition) were also impaired in both forms of hearing loss and correlated more strongly with PTA. Children with mild hearing loss were additionally impaired in working memory (digit span) and reading, and generally performed more poorly than those with minimal loss. Asymmetric hearing loss produced as much impairment overall on both auditory and cognitive tasks as symmetric hearing loss. Nonverbal IQ, attention, and caregiver-rated listening and communication were not significantly impaired in children with hearing loss. Modeling suggested that 15 dB HL is objectively an appropriate lower audibility limit for diagnosis of hearing loss.
Conclusions: Hearing loss between 15 and 30 dB PTA is, at ~20%, much more prevalent in 6- to 11-year-old children than most current estimates. Key aspects of auditory and cognitive skills are impaired in both symmetric and asymmetric minimal and mild hearing loss. Hearing loss
DOI : 10.1097/AUD.0000000000000802|1 Disponible en ligne : Non En ligne : https://login.ezproxy.vinci.be/login?url=http://ovidsp.ovid.com/ovidweb.cgi?T=JS [...] Permalink : https://bib.vinci.be/opac_css/index.php?lvl=notice_display&id=256655
in Ear and hearing > Vol. 41, n°4 (Juillet-aout 2020) . - p. 720-732[article]Cochlear Implant Data Logs Predict Children's Receptive Vocabulary / Tobias Busch in Ear and hearing, Vol. 41, n°4 (Juillet-aout 2020)
Titre : Cochlear Implant Data Logs Predict Children's Receptive Vocabulary Type de document : Article Auteurs : Tobias Busch ; Anneke Vermeulen ; Margreet Langereis ; Filiep J. Vanpoucke ; Astrid van Wieringen Année de publication : 2020 Article en page(s) : p. 733-746 Langues : Anglais (eng) Descripteurs : Autres descripteurs
Developpement de la parole ; Environnement sonore
Acquisition du vocabulaire ; Implants cochléaires ; Observation du jeune enfant
Résumé : Objectives: The data logs of Cochlear Nucleus cochlear implant (CI) sound processors show large interindividual variation in children's daily CI use and auditory environments. This study explored whether these differences are associated with differences in the receptive vocabulary of young implanted children.
Design: Data of 52 prelingually deaf children, who had received a CI before 3 years of age, were obtained from their clinical records. In total, 73 Peabody Picture Vocabulary tests and CI data logs for 1 year preceding each test were collected. The data logs were used to determine the children's average daily amount of CI use and exposure to speech, speech in noise, noise, music, and quiet. In addition, information was collected about other potential predictors of language abilities, namely gender, age, age at implantation, etiology of deafness, educational placement, and implantation mode (unilateral, bilateral). Model selection with Akaike's information criterion was used to determine which data-logging metrics, other variables, and combinations of both best predict receptive vocabulary scores.
Results: The data showed a strong positive association between receptive vocabulary and daily CI use, and a negative association between receptive vocabulary and daily exposure to music. Associations with the data logs' speech and noise metrics were less clear. The most important other variable was educational placement. The best model performance was achieved when data logs and other information were combined.
Conclusions: The results emphasize the importance of consistent CI use and a rich auditory environment for the early language development of young CI users. The study also shows that CI data logs capture information about children's environment and CI use that are related to language performance and can help to detect and address problems and improve the auditory rehabilitation after cochlear implantation.
Disponible en ligne : Oui En ligne : https://login.ezproxy.vinci.be/login?url=http://ovidsp.ovid.com/ovidweb.cgi?T=JS [...] Permalink : https://bib.vinci.be/opac_css/index.php?lvl=notice_display&id=256656
in Ear and hearing > Vol. 41, n°4 (Juillet-aout 2020) . - p. 733-746[article]Acoustic Hearing Can Interfere With Single-Sided Deafness Cochlear-Implant Speech Perception / Joshua G. W. Bernstein in Ear and hearing, Vol. 41, n°4 (Juillet-aout 2020)
Titre : Acoustic Hearing Can Interfere With Single-Sided Deafness Cochlear-Implant Speech Perception Type de document : Article Auteurs : Joshua G. W. Bernstein ; Olga A. Stakhovskaya ; Kenneth Kragh Jensen ; Matthew J. Goupell Année de publication : 2020 Article en page(s) : p. 747-761 Langues : Anglais (eng) Descripteurs : HE Vinci
Audition binaurale ; Implants cochléaires ; Masquage ; Perte auditive unilatérale (USNHL) ; Sujet âgé
Appareillage asymetrique ; Attention selective
Résumé : Objectives: Cochlear implants (CIs) restore some spatial advantages for speech understanding in noise to individuals with single-sided deafness (SSD). In addition to a head-shadow advantage when the CI ear has a better signal-to-noise ratio, a CI can also provide a binaural advantage in certain situations, facilitating the perceptual separation of spatially separated concurrent voices. While some bilateral-CI listeners show a similar binaural advantage, bilateral-CI listeners with relatively large asymmetries in monaural speech understanding can instead experience contralateral speech interference. Based on the interference previously observed for asymmetric bilateral-CI listeners, this study tested the hypothesis that in a multiple-talker situation, the acoustic ear would interfere with rather than improve CI speech understanding for SSD-CI listeners.
Design: Experiment 1 measured CI-ear speech understanding in the presence of competing speech or noise for 13 SSD-CI listeners. Target speech from the closed-set coordinate response-measure corpus was presented to the CI ear along with one same-gender competing talker or stationary noise at target-to-masker ratios between -8 and 20 dB. The acoustic ear was presented with silence (monaural condition) or with a copy of the competing speech or noise (bilateral condition). Experiment 2 tested a subset of 6 listeners in the reverse configuration for which SSD-CI listeners have previously shown a binaural benefit (target and competing speech presented to the acoustic ear; silence or competing speech presented to the CI ear). Experiment 3 examined the possible influence of a methodological difference between experiments 1 and 2: whether the competing talker spoke keywords that were inside or outside the response set. For each experiment, the data were analyzed using repeated-measures logistic regression. For experiment 1, a correlation analysis compared the difference between bilateral and monaural speech-understanding scores to several listener-specific factors: speech understanding in the CI ear, preimplantation duration of deafness, duration of CI experience, ear of deafness (left/right), acoustic-ear audiometric thresholds, and listener age.
Results: In experiment 1, presenting a copy of the competing speech to the acoustic ear reduced CI speech-understanding scores for target-to-masker ratios >=4 dB. This interference effect was limited to competing-speech conditions and was not observed for a noise masker. There was dramatic intersubject variability in the magnitude of the interference (range: 1 to 43 rationalized arcsine units), which was found to be significantly correlated with listener age. The interference effect contrasted sharply with the reverse configuration (experiment 2), whereby presenting a copy of the competing speech to the contralateral CI ear significantly improved performance relative to monaural acoustic-ear performance. Keyword condition (experiment 3) did not influence the observed pattern of interference.
Conclusions: Most SSD-CI listeners experienced interference when they attended to the CI ear and competing speech was added to the acoustic ear, although there was a large amount of intersubject variability in the magnitude of the effect, with older listeners particularly susceptible to interference. While further research is needed to investigate these effects under free-field listening conditions, these results suggest that for certain spatial configurations in a multiple-talker situation, contralateral speech interference could reduce the benefit that an SSD-CI otherwise provides.
DOI : 10.1097/AUD.0000000000000805|1 Disponible en ligne : Oui En ligne : https://login.ezproxy.vinci.be/login?url=http://ovidsp.ovid.com/ovidweb.cgi?T=JS [...] Permalink : https://bib.vinci.be/opac_css/index.php?lvl=notice_display&id=256676
in Ear and hearing > Vol. 41, n°4 (Juillet-aout 2020) . - p. 747-761[article]Family Environment in Children With Hearing Aids and Cochlear Implants: Associations With Spoken Language, Psychosocial Functioning, and Cognitive Development / Rachel Frush Holt in Ear and hearing, Vol. 41, n°4 (Juillet-aout 2020)
Titre : Family Environment in Children With Hearing Aids and Cochlear Implants: Associations With Spoken Language, Psychosocial Functioning, and Cognitive Development Type de document : Article Auteurs : Rachel Frush Holt ; Jessica Beer ; William Kronenberger ; David B. Pisoni ; Kaylah Lalonde ; Lindsay Mulinaro Année de publication : 2020 Article en page(s) : p. 762-774 Langues : Anglais (eng) Descripteurs : HE Vinci
Aide auditive ; Développement du langage ; Environnement familial ; Fonctions exécutives ; Implants cochléaires
Résumé : Objectives: To examine differences in family environment and associations between family environment and key speech, language, and cognitive outcomes in samples of children with normal hearing and deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) children who use hearing aids and cochlear implants.
Design: Thirty families of children with normal hearing (n = 10), hearing aids (n = 10), or cochlear implants (n = 10) completed questionnaires evaluating executive function, social skills, and problem behaviors. Children's language and receptive vocabulary were evaluated using standardized measures in the children's homes. In addition, families were administered a standardized in-home questionnaire and observational assessment regarding the home environment.
Results: Family environment overall was similar across hearing level and sensory aid, although some differences were found on parental responsivity and physical environment. The level of supportiveness and enrichment within family relationships accounted for much of the relations between family environment and the psychosocial and neurocognitive development of DHH children. In contrast, the availability of objects and experiences to stimulate learning in the home was related to the development of spoken language.
Conclusions: Whereas broad characteristics of the family environments of DHH children may not differ from those of hearing children, variability in family functioning is related to DHH children's at-risk speech, language, and cognitive outcomes. Results support the importance of further research to clarify and explain these relations, which might suggest novel methods and targets of family-based interventions to improve developmental outcomes.
DOI : 10.1097/AUD.0000000000000811|1 Disponible en ligne : Oui En ligne : https://login.ezproxy.vinci.be/login?url=http://ovidsp.ovid.com/ovidweb.cgi?T=JS [...] Permalink : https://bib.vinci.be/opac_css/index.php?lvl=notice_display&id=256677
in Ear and hearing > Vol. 41, n°4 (Juillet-aout 2020) . - p. 762-774[article]Aided Hearing Moderates the Academic Outcomes of Children With Mild to Severe Hearing Loss / J. Bruce Tomblin in Ear and hearing, Vol. 41, n°4 (Juillet-aout 2020)
Titre : Aided Hearing Moderates the Academic Outcomes of Children With Mild to Severe Hearing Loss Type de document : Article Auteurs : J. Bruce Tomblin ; Jake Oleson ; Sophie E. Ambrose ; Elizabeth A. Walker ; Ryan W. McCreery ; Mary Pat Moeller Année de publication : 2020 Article en page(s) : p. 775-789 Langues : Anglais (eng) Descripteurs : HE Vinci
Aides auditives ; Déficient auditif sévère (DHH) ; Enfant déficient auditif
Surdité congénitale ou héréditaire
Résumé : Objectives: There are very limited data regarding the spoken language and academic outcomes of children with mild to severe hearing loss (HL) during the elementary school years, and the findings of these studies are inconsistent. None of these studies have examined the possible role of aided hearing in these outcomes. This study used a large cohort of children to examine these outcomes and in particular to examine whether aided hearing moderates the effect of HL with regard to these outcomes.
Design: The spoken language, reading, writing, and calculation abilities were measured after second and fourth grades in children with mild to severe HL (children who are hard of hearing; CHH, n = 183) and a group of children with normal hearing (CNH, n = 91) after the completion of second and fourth grades. Also, among the CHH who wore hearing aids, aided better-ear speech intelligibility index values at the age of school entry were obtained.
Results: Oral language abilities of the CHH with mild and moderate HL were similar to the CNH at each grade. Children with moderately-severe HL (better-ear pure tone threshold >59 but
Conclusions: As a group, children with mild and moderate HL have good outcomes with regard to language and academic performance. Children with moderately-severe losses were less skilled in language and reading than the CNH and CHH children with mild and moderate losses. Audibility provided by hearing aids was found to moderate the effects of HL with respect to these outcomes. These findings emphasize the importance of including the effects of clinical interventions such as aided hearing when examining outcomes of CHH.
Disponible en ligne : Oui En ligne : https://login.ezproxy.vinci.be/login?url=http://ovidsp.ovid.com/ovidweb.cgi?T=JS [...] Permalink : https://bib.vinci.be/opac_css/index.php?lvl=notice_display&id=256678
in Ear and hearing > Vol. 41, n°4 (Juillet-aout 2020) . - p. 775-789[article]Rerouting Hearing Aid Systems for Overcoming Simulated Unilateral Hearing in Dynamic Listening Situations / Erin M. Picou in Ear and hearing, Vol. 41, n°4 (Juillet-aout 2020)
Titre : Rerouting Hearing Aid Systems for Overcoming Simulated Unilateral Hearing in Dynamic Listening Situations Type de document : Article Auteurs : Erin M. Picou ; Dawna E. Lewis ; Gina P. Angley ; Anne Marie Tharpe Année de publication : 2020 Article en page(s) : p. 790-803 Langues : Anglais (eng) Descripteurs : HE Vinci
Aide auditive controlatérale ; Bruit ambiant ; Microphone à distance sans fil (RM) ; Perte auditive unilatérale (USNHL) ; Reconnaissance de la parole
Résumé : Objectives: Unilateral hearing loss increases the risk of academic and behavioral challenges for school-aged children. Previous research suggests that remote microphone (RM) systems offer the most consistent benefits for children with unilateral hearing loss in classroom environments relative to other nonsurgical interventions. However, generalizability of previous laboratory work is limited because of the specific listening situations evaluated, which often included speech and noise signals originating from the side. In addition, early studies focused on speech recognition tasks requiring limited cognitive engagement. However, those laboratory conditions do not reflect characteristics of contemporary classrooms, which are cognitively demanding and typically include multiple talkers of interest in relatively diffuse background noise. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential effects of rerouting amplification systems, specifically a RM system and a contralateral routing of signal (CROS) system, on speech recognition and comprehension of school-age children in a laboratory environment designed to emulate the dynamic characteristics of contemporary classrooms. It was expected that listeners would benefit from the CROS system when the head shadow limits audibility (e.g., monaural indirect listening). It was also expected that listeners would benefit from the RM system only when the RM was near the talker of interest.
Design: Twenty-one children (10 to 14 years, M = 11.86) with normal hearing participated in laboratory tests of speech recognition and comprehension. Unilateral hearing loss was simulated by presenting speech-shaped masking noise to one ear via an insert earphone. Speech stimuli were presented from 1 of 4 loudspeakers located at either 0[degrees], +45[degrees], -90[degrees], and -135[degrees] or 0[degrees], -45[degrees], +90[degrees], and +135[degrees]. Cafeteria noise was presented from separate loudspeakers surrounding the listener. Participants repeated sentences (sentence recognition) and also answered questions after listening to an unfamiliar story (comprehension). They were tested unaided, with a RM system (microphone near the front loudspeaker), and with a CROS system (ear-level microphone on the ear with simulated hearing loss).
Results: Relative to unaided listening, both rerouting systems reduced sentence recognition performance for most signals originating near the ear with normal hearing (monaural direct loudspeakers). Only the RM system improved speech recognition for midline signals, which were near the RM. Only the CROS system significantly improved speech recognition for signals originating near the ear with simulated hearing loss (monaural indirect loudspeakers). Although the benefits were generally small (approximately 6.5 percentage points), the CROS system also improved comprehension scores, which reflect overall listening across all four loudspeakers. Conversely, the RM system did not improve comprehension scores relative to unaided listening.
Conclusions: Benefits of the CROS system in this study were small, specific to situations where speech is directed toward the ear with hearing loss, and relative only to a RM system utilizing one microphone. Although future study is warranted to evaluate the generalizability of the findings, the data demonstrate both CROS and RM systems are nonsurgical interventions that have the potential to improve speech recognition and comprehension for children with limited useable unilateral hearing in dynamic, noisy classroom situations.
DOI : 10.1097/AUD.0000000000000800|1 Disponible en ligne : Oui En ligne : https://login.ezproxy.vinci.be/login?url=http://ovidsp.ovid.com/ovidweb.cgi?T=JS [...] Permalink : https://bib.vinci.be/opac_css/index.php?lvl=notice_display&id=256679
in Ear and hearing > Vol. 41, n°4 (Juillet-aout 2020) . - p. 790-803[article]Superior Canal Dehiscence Similarly Affects Cochlear Pressures in Temporal Bones and Audiograms in Patients / Y. Song Cheng in Ear and hearing, Vol. 41, n°4 (Juillet-aout 2020)
Titre : Superior Canal Dehiscence Similarly Affects Cochlear Pressures in Temporal Bones and Audiograms in Patients Type de document : Article Auteurs : Y. Song Cheng ; Stefan Raufer ; Xiying Guan ; Christopher Halpin ; Daniel J. Lee ; Hideko H. Nakajima Année de publication : 2020 Article en page(s) : p. 804-810 Langues : Anglais (eng) Descripteurs : HE Vinci
Canal semi-circulaire ; Cochlée ; Niveau de pression sonore (SPL)
Mots-clés : syndrome de déhiscence du canal semi-circulaire supérieur Résumé : Objectives: The diagnosis of superior canal dehiscence (SCD) is challenging and audiograms play an important role in raising clinical suspicion of SCD. The typical audiometric finding in SCD is the combination of increased air conduction (AC) thresholds and decreased bone conduction thresholds at low frequencies. However, this pattern is not always apparent in audiograms of patients with SCD, and some have hearing thresholds that are within the normal reference range despite subjective reports of hearing impairment. In this study, we used a human temporal bone model to measure the differential pressure across the cochlear partition (PDiff) before and after introduction of an SCD. PDiff estimates the cochlear input drive and provides a mechanical audiogram of the temporal bone. We measured PDiff across a wider frequency range than in previous studies and investigated whether the changes in PDiff in the temporal bone model and changes of audiometric thresholds in patients with SCD were similar, as both are thought to reflect the same physical phenomenon.
Design: We measured PDiff across the cochlear partition in fresh human cadaveric temporal bones before and after creating an SCD. Measurements were made for a wide frequency range (20 Hz to 10 kHz), which extends down to lower frequencies than in previous studies and audiograms. PDiff = PSV- PST is calculated from pressures measured simultaneously at the base of the cochlea in scala vestibuli (PSV) and scala tympani (PST) during sound stimulation. The change in PDiff after an SCD is created quantifies the effect of SCD on hearing. We further included an important experimental control-by patching the SCD, to confirm that PDiff was reversed back to the initial state. To provide a comparison of temporal bone data to clinical data, we analyzed AC audiograms (250 Hz to 8kHz) of patients with symptomatic unilateral SCD (radiographically confirmed). To achieve this, we used the unaffected ear to estimate the baseline hearing function for each patient, and determined the influence of SCD by referencing AC hearing thresholds of the SCD-affected ear with the unaffected contralateral ear.
Results: PDiff measured in temporal bones (n = 6) and AC thresholds in patients (n = 53) exhibited a similar pattern of SCD-related change. With decreasing frequency, SCD caused a progressive decrease in PDiff at low frequencies for all temporal bones and a progressive increase in AC thresholds at low frequencies. SCD decreases the cochlear input drive by approximately 6 dB per octave at frequencies below ~1 kHz for both PDiff and AC thresholds. Individual data varied in frequency and magnitude of this SCD effect, where some temporal-bone ears had noticeable effects only below 250 Hz.
Conclusions: We found that with decrease in frequency the progressive decrease in low-frequency PDiff in our temporal bone experiments mirrors the progressive elevation in AC hearing thresholds observed in patients. This hypothesis remains to be tested in the clinical setting, but our findings suggest that that measuring AC thresholds at frequencies below 250 Hz would detect a larger change, thus improving audiograms as a diagnostic tool for SCD.
DOI : 10.1097/AUD.0000000000000799|1 Disponible en ligne : Oui En ligne : https://login.ezproxy.vinci.be/login?url=http://ovidsp.ovid.com/ovidweb.cgi?T=JS [...] Permalink : https://bib.vinci.be/opac_css/index.php?lvl=notice_display&id=256687
in Ear and hearing > Vol. 41, n°4 (Juillet-aout 2020) . - p. 804-810[article]Assessing the Effect of Middle Ear Effusions on Wideband Acoustic Immittance Using Optical Coherence Tomography / Jungeun Won in Ear and hearing, Vol. 41, n°4 (Juillet-aout 2020)
Titre : Assessing the Effect of Middle Ear Effusions on Wideband Acoustic Immittance Using Optical Coherence Tomography Type de document : Article Auteurs : Jungeun Won ; Guillermo Monroy ; Pin-Chieh Huang ; [et al.] Année de publication : 2020 Article en page(s) : p. 811-824 Langues : Anglais (eng) Descripteurs : HE Vinci
Imagerie médicale ; Oreille moyenne ; Tomographie
Résumé : Objectives: Wideband acoustic immittance (WAI) noninvasively assesses middle ear function by measuring the sound conduction over a range of audible frequencies. Although several studies have shown the potential of WAI for detecting the presence of middle ear effusions (MEEs), determining the effects of MEE type and amount on WAI in vivo has been challenging due to the anatomical location of middle ear cavity. The purpose of this study is to correlate WAI measurements with physical characteristics of the middle ear and MEEs determined by optical coherence tomography (OCT), a noninvasive optical imaging technique.
Design: Sixteen pediatric subjects (average age of 7 +/- 4 years) were recruited from the primary care clinic at Carle Foundation Hospital (Urbana, IL). A total of 22 ears (normal: 15 ears, otitis media with effusion: 6 ears, and acute otitis media: 1 ear, based on physician's diagnosis) were examined via standard otoscopy, tympanometry, OCT imaging, and WAI measurements in a busy, community-based clinical setting. Cross-sectional OCT images were analyzed to quantitatively assess the presence, type (relative turbidity based on the amount of scattering), and amount (relative fluid level) of MEEs. These OCT metrics were utilized to categorize subject ears into no MEE (control), biofilm without a MEE, serous-scant, serous-severe, mucoid-scant, and mucoid-severe MEE groups. The absorbance levels in each group were statistically evaluated at [alpha] = 0.05.
Results: The absorbance of the control group showed a similar trend when compared with a pediatric normative dataset, and the presence of an MEE generally decreased the power absorbance. The mucoid MEE group showed significantly less power absorbance from 2.74 to 4.73 kHz (p
Conclusions: Physical characteristics of the middle ear and MEEs quantified from noninvasive OCT images can be helpful to understand abnormal WAI measurements. Mucoid MEEs decrease the power absorbance more than serous MEEs, and the greater amounts of MEE decreases the power absorbance, especially at higher (>2 kHz) frequencies. As both the type and amount of MEE can significantly affect WAI measurements, further investigations to correlate acoustic measurements with physical characteristics of middle ear conditions in vivo is needed.
Disponible en ligne : Oui En ligne : https://login.ezproxy.vinci.be/login?url=http://ovidsp.ovid.com/ovidweb.cgi?T=JS [...] Permalink : https://bib.vinci.be/opac_css/index.php?lvl=notice_display&id=256747
in Ear and hearing > Vol. 41, n°4 (Juillet-aout 2020) . - p. 811-824[article]Modality Effects on Lexical Encoding and Memory Representations of Spoken Words / Lynn M. Bielski in Ear and hearing, Vol. 41, n°4 (Juillet-aout 2020)
Titre : Modality Effects on Lexical Encoding and Memory Representations of Spoken Words Type de document : Article Auteurs : Lynn M. Bielski ; Lindsey Byom ; Philip F. Seitz ; Ken W. Grant Année de publication : 2020 Article en page(s) : p. 825-837 Langues : Anglais (eng) Descripteurs : HE Vinci
Mémoire à court terme ; Scintigraphie ; Sujet âgé ; Surdité neurosensorielle (SNHL)
Encodage de la parole ; Fonctions visuo-perceptives
Résumé : Objectives: The present study investigated presentation modality differences in lexical encoding and working memory representations of spoken words of older, hearing-impaired adults. Two experiments were undertaken: a memory-scanning experiment and a stimulus gating experiment. The primary objective of experiment 1 was to determine whether memory encoding and retrieval and scanning speeds are different for easily identifiable words presented in auditory-visual (AV), auditory-only (AO), and visual-only (VO) modalities. The primary objective of experiment 2 was to determine if memory encoding and retrieval speed differences observed in experiment 1 could be attributed to the early availability of AV speech information compared with AO or VO conditions.
Design: Twenty-six adults over age 60 years with bilateral mild to moderate sensorineural hearing loss participated in experiment 1, and 24 adults who took part in experiment 1 participated in experiment 2. An item recognition reaction-time paradigm (memory-scanning) was used in experiment 1 to measure (1) lexical encoding speed, that is, the speed at which an easily identifiable word was recognized and placed into working memory, and (2) retrieval speed, that is, the speed at which words were retrieved from memory and compared with similarly encoded words (memory scanning) presented in AV, AO, and VO modalities. Experiment 2 used a time-gated word identification task to test whether the time course of stimulus information available to participants predicted the modality-related memory encoding and retrieval speed results from experiment 1.
Results: The results of experiment 1 revealed significant differences among the modalities with respect to both memory encoding and retrieval speed, with AV fastest and VO slowest. These differences motivated an examination of the time course of stimulus information available as a function of modality. Results from experiment 2 indicated the encoding and retrieval speed advantages for AV and AO words compared with VO words were mostly driven by the time course of stimulus information. The AV advantage seen in encoding and retrieval speeds is likely due to a combination of robust stimulus information available to the listener earlier in time and lower attentional demands compared with AO or VO encoding and retrieval.
Conclusions: Significant modality differences in lexical encoding and memory retrieval speeds were observed across modalities. The memory scanning speed advantage observed for AV compared with AO or VO modalities was strongly related to the time course of stimulus information. In contrast, lexical encoding and retrieval speeds for VO words could not be explained by the time-course of stimulus information alone. Working memory processes for the VO modality may be impacted by greater attentional demands and less information availability compared with the AV and AO modalities. Overall, these results support the hypothesis that the presentation modality for speech inputs (AV, AO, or VO) affects how older adult listeners with hearing loss encode, remember, and retrieve what they hear.
DOI : 10.1097/AUD.0000000000000801|1 Disponible en ligne : Oui En ligne : https://login.ezproxy.vinci.be/login?url=http://ovidsp.ovid.com/ovidweb.cgi?T=JS [...] Permalink : https://bib.vinci.be/opac_css/index.php?lvl=notice_display&id=256749
in Ear and hearing > Vol. 41, n°4 (Juillet-aout 2020) . - p. 825-837[article]Evaluating the Effect of Training Along With Fit Testing on Premolded Earplug Users in a Chinese Petrochemical Plant / Yufei Liu in Ear and hearing, Vol. 41, n°4 (Juillet-aout 2020)
Titre : Evaluating the Effect of Training Along With Fit Testing on Premolded Earplug Users in a Chinese Petrochemical Plant Type de document : Article Auteurs : Yufei Liu ; Wei Gong ; Xin Liu ; Ling Li Année de publication : 2020 Article en page(s) : p. 838-846 Langues : Anglais (eng) Descripteurs : Autres descripteurs
Dispositifs de protection des oreilles ; Protection auditive
Résumé : Objectives: To gain insight into the current practice of hearing protection of Chinese workers and the value of hearing protection device (HPD) fit testing.
Design: HPD fit testing was conducted on workers (N = 774) in a petrochemical plant in Eastern China who were on duty during the period of this study. The 3M E-A-Rfit Dual-Ear Validation System was used to measure the personal attenuation ratings (PARs) of a premolded earplug used at the work site. Repeated fit testing was conducted at approximately 6- or 12-month intervals. Wilcoxon signed rank tests were conducted to analyze the pairwise differences between the baseline, postintervention, and follow-up visit PARs, and Mann-Whitney tests were used to compare the PARs obtained by two follow-up groups.
Results: The median PAR baseline was 11 dB; significant improvement was shown on the postintervention PARs (p 0.05). Comparing PARs of follow-up visits with the baseline PAR demonstrated a significant improvement (p
Conclusions: HPD fit testing showed value added as to verify the sufficiency of attenuation. The training along with fit testing showed contributions to improve PARs, maintained effectiveness over time, and assisted in HPD selection. Follow-up is believed to be important to ensure that the HPDs are continually used correctly. There was no significant difference in the sustained effectiveness of the follow-up when observe 6- and 12-month subsequent to intervention.
DOI : 10.1097/AUD.0000000000000803|1 Disponible en ligne : Oui En ligne : https://login.ezproxy.vinci.be/login?url=http://ovidsp.ovid.com/ovidweb.cgi?T=JS [...] Permalink : https://bib.vinci.be/opac_css/index.php?lvl=notice_display&id=256751
in Ear and hearing > Vol. 41, n°4 (Juillet-aout 2020) . - p. 838-846[article]Maximum Output and Low-Frequency Limitations of B71 and B81 Clinical Bone Vibrators: Implications for Vestibular Evoked Potentials / Christopher G. Clinard in Ear and hearing, Vol. 41, n°4 (Juillet-aout 2020)
Titre : Maximum Output and Low-Frequency Limitations of B71 and B81 Clinical Bone Vibrators: Implications for Vestibular Evoked Potentials Type de document : Article Auteurs : Christopher G. Clinard ; Erin G. Piker ; Andrew P. Thorne ; [et al.] Année de publication : 2020 Article en page(s) : p. 847-854 Langues : Anglais (eng) Descripteurs : Autres descripteurs
Potentiel évoqué auditif (PEA) ; Potentiels évoqués vestibulaires myogéniques (cVEMP) (mVEMP) (oVEMP) ; Vestibulométrie
Résumé : Objectives: Bone-conducted vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (VEMPs) are tuned to have their maximum amplitude in response to tone bursts at or below 250 Hz. The low-frequency limitations of clinical bone vibrators have not been established for transient, tone burst stimuli at frequencies that are optimal for eliciting VEMPs.
Design: Tone bursts with frequencies of 250 to 2000 Hz were delivered to B71 and B81 bone vibrators and their output was examined using an artificial mastoid. The lower-frequency limit of the transducers was evaluated by examining the spectral output of the bone vibrators. Maximum output levels were evaluated by measuring input-output functions across a range of stimulus levels.
Results: Both the B71 and B81 could produce transient tone bursts with frequency as low as 400 Hz. However, tone bursts with frequencies of 250 and 315 Hz resulted in output with peak spectral energy at approximately 400 Hz. From 500 to 2000 Hz, maximum output levels within the linear range were between 120 and 128 dB peak force level. The newer B81 bone vibrator had a maximum output approximately 5 dB higher than the B71 at several frequencies.
Conclusions: These findings demonstrate that both transducers can reach levels appropriate to elicit bone-conducted VEMPs, but the low-frequency limitations of these clinical bone vibrators limit tone burst frequency to approximately 400 Hz when attempting to stimulate the otolith organs via tone bursts.
DOI : 10.1097/AUD.0000000000000808|1 Disponible en ligne : Oui En ligne : https://login.ezproxy.vinci.be/login?url=http://ovidsp.ovid.com/ovidweb.cgi?T=JS [...] Permalink : https://bib.vinci.be/opac_css/index.php?lvl=notice_display&id=256774
in Ear and hearing > Vol. 41, n°4 (Juillet-aout 2020) . - p. 847-854[article]Evidence of Vowel Discrimination Provided by the Acoustic Change Complex / Diane Cheek in Ear and hearing, Vol. 41, n°4 (Juillet-aout 2020)
Titre : Evidence of Vowel Discrimination Provided by the Acoustic Change Complex Type de document : Article Auteurs : Diane Cheek ; Barbara Cone-Wesson Année de publication : 2020 Article en page(s) : p. 855-867 Langues : Anglais (eng) Descripteurs : HE Vinci
Discrimination auditive ; Electrophysiologie auditive ; Perception de la parole ; Potentiel évoqué cortical sonore (CAEP)
Changement acoustique complexe (ACC) ; Perception des voyelles
Résumé : Objectives: The objectives of this study were to measure the effects of level and vowel contrast on the latencies and amplitudes of acoustic change complex (ACC) in the mature auditory system. This was done to establish how the ACC in healthy young adults is affected by these stimulus parameters that could then be used to inform translation of the ACC into a clinical measure for the pediatric population. Another aim was to demonstrate that a normalized amplitude metric, calculated by dividing the ACC amplitude in the vowel contrast condition by the ACC amplitude obtained in a control condition (no vowel change) would demonstrate good sensitivity with respect to perceptual measures of vowel-contrast detection. The premises underlying this research were that: (1) ACC latencies and amplitudes would vary with level, in keeping with principles of an increase in neural synchrony and activity that takes place as a function of increasing stimulus level; (2) ACC latencies and amplitudes would vary with vowel contrast, because cortical auditory evoked potentials are known to be sensitive to the spectro-temporal characteristics of speech.
Design: Nineteen adults, 14 of them female, with a mean age of 24.2 years (range 20 to 38 years) participated in this study. All had normal-hearing thresholds. Cortical auditory evoked potentials were obtained from all participants in response to synthesized vowel tokens (/a/, /i/, /o/, /u/), presented in a quasi-steady state fashion at a rate of 2/sec in an oddball stimulus paradigm, with a 25% probability of the deviant stimulus. The ACC was obtained in response to the deviant stimulus. All combinations of vowel tokens were tested at 2 stimulus levels: 40 and 70 dBA. In addition, listeners were tested for their ability to detect the vowel contrasts using behavioral methods.
Results: ACC amplitude varied systematically with level, and test condition (control versus contrast) and vowel token, but ACC latency did not. ACC amplitudes were significantly larger when tested at 70 dBA compared with 40 dBA and for contrast trials compared with control trials at both levels. Amplitude ratios (normalized amplitudes) were largest for contrast pairs in which /a/ was the standard token. The amplitude ratio metric at the individual level demonstrated up to 97% sensitivity with respect to perceptual measures of discrimination.
Conclusions: The present study establishes the effects of stimulus level and vowel type on the latency and amplitude of the ACC in the young adult auditory system and supports the amplitude ratio as a sensitive metric for cortical acoustic salience of vowel spectral features. Next steps are to evaluate these methods in infants and children with hearing loss with the long-term goal of its translation into a clinical method for estimating speech feature discrimination.
Disponible en ligne : Oui En ligne : https://login.ezproxy.vinci.be/login?url=http://ovidsp.ovid.com/ovidweb.cgi?T=JS [...] Permalink : https://bib.vinci.be/opac_css/index.php?lvl=notice_display&id=256779
in Ear and hearing > Vol. 41, n°4 (Juillet-aout 2020) . - p. 855-867[article]Interaction Between Electric and Acoustic Stimulation Influences Speech Perception in Ipsilateral EAS Users / Marina Imsiecke in Ear and hearing, Vol. 41, n°4 (Juillet-aout 2020)
Titre : Interaction Between Electric and Acoustic Stimulation Influences Speech Perception in Ipsilateral EAS Users Type de document : Article Auteurs : Marina Imsiecke ; Benjamin Kruger ; Andreas Buchner ; Thomas Lenarz ; Waldo Nogueira Année de publication : 2020 Article en page(s) : p. 868-882 Langues : Anglais (eng) Descripteurs : HE Vinci
Electrocochléographie ; Implants cochléaires ; Inhibition acoustique résiduelle (ARI) ; Masquage ; Perception de la parole ; Stimulation électro-acoustique (EAS) ; Stratégie d'ajustement
Résumé : Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine electric-acoustic masking in cochlear implant users with ipsilateral residual hearing and different electrode insertion depths and to investigate the influence on speech reception. The effects of different fitting strategies-meet, overlap, and a newly developed masking adjusted fitting (UNMASKfit)-on speech reception are compared. If electric-acoustic masking has a detrimental effect on speech reception, the individualized UNMASKfit map might be able to reduce masking and thereby enhance speech reception.
Design: Fifteen experienced MED-EL Flex electrode recipients with ipsilateral residual hearing participated in a crosssover design study using three fitting strategies for 4 weeks each. The following strategies were compared: (1) a meet fitting, dividing the frequency range between electric and acoustic stimulation, (2) an overlap fitting, delivering part of the frequency range both acoustically and electrically, and (3) the UNMASKfit, reducing the electric stimulation according to the individual electric-on-acoustic masking strength. A psychoacoustic masking procedure was used to measure the changes in acoustic thresholds due to the presence of electric maskers. Speech reception was measured in noise with the Oldenburg Matrix Sentence test.
Results: Behavioral thresholds of acoustic probe tones were significantly elevated in the presence of electric maskers. A maximum of masking was observed when the difference in location between the electric and acoustic stimulation was around one octave in place frequency. Speech reception scores and strength of masking showed a dependency on residual hearing, and speech reception was significantly reduced in the overlap fitting strategy. Electric- acoustic stimulation significantly improved speech reception over electric stimulation alone, with a tendency toward a larger benefit with the UNMASKfit map. In addition, masking was significantly inversely correlated to the speech reception performance difference between the overlap and the meet fitting.
Conclusions: (1) This study confirmed the interaction between ipsilateral electric and acoustic stimulation in a psychoacoustic masking experiment. (2) The overlap fitting yielded poorer speech reception performance in stationary noise especially in subjects with strong masking. (3) The newly developed UNMASKfit strategy yielded similar speech reception thresholds with an enhanced acoustic benefit, while at the same time reducing the electric stimulation. This could be beneficial in the long-term if applied as a standard fitting, as hair cells are exposed to less possibly adverse electric stimulation. In this study, the UNMASKfit allowed the participants a better use of their natural hearing even after 1 month of adaptation. It might be feasible to transfer these results to the clinic, by fitting patients with the UNMASKfit upon their first fitting appointment, so that longer adaptation times can further improve speech reception.
DOI : 10.1097/AUD.0000000000000807|1 Disponible en ligne : Oui En ligne : https://login.ezproxy.vinci.be/login?url=http://ovidsp.ovid.com/ovidweb.cgi?T=JS [...] Permalink : https://bib.vinci.be/opac_css/index.php?lvl=notice_display&id=256781
in Ear and hearing > Vol. 41, n°4 (Juillet-aout 2020) . - p. 868-882[article]Wideband Acoustic Immittance in Cochlear Implant Recipients: Reflectance and Stapedial Reflexes / Rachel A. Scheperle in Ear and hearing, Vol. 41, n°4 (Juillet-aout 2020)
Titre : Wideband Acoustic Immittance in Cochlear Implant Recipients: Reflectance and Stapedial Reflexes Type de document : Article Auteurs : Rachel A. Scheperle ; Joshua J. Hajicek Année de publication : 2020 Article en page(s) : p. 883-895 Langues : Anglais (eng) Descripteurs : Autres descripteurs
Implants cochléaires ; Réflexe stapédien
Résumé : Objectives: to characterize differences in wideband power reflectance for ears with and without cochlear implants (CIs), to describe electrically evoked stapedial reflex (eSR)-induced changes in reflectance, and to evaluate the benefit of a broadband probe for reflex threshold determination for CI recipients. It was hypothesized that reflectance patterns in ears with CIs would be consistent with increased middle ear stiffness and that reflex thresholds measured with a broadband probe would be lower compared with thresholds obtained with a single-frequency probe.
Design: Eleven CI recipients participated in both wideband reflectance and eSR testing. Ipsilateral reflexes were measured with three probes: a broadband chirp (swept from 200 to 8000 Hz), a 226 Hz tone, and a 678 Hz tone. Wideband reflectance measures acquired from 28 adults without CIs and with normal middle ear function served as a normative data set for comparison.
Results: Considering the group data, average reflectance was significantly greater for ears with CIs across 250 to 891 Hz and 4238 to 4490 Hz compared with the normative data set, although individual reflectance curves were variable. Some CI recipients also had low 226 Hz admittance, which contributed to the group finding, considering the control group had clinically normal 226 Hz admittance by design. Electrically evoked stapedial reflexes were measurable in nine of 14 ears (64.3%) and in 24 of 46 electrodes (52.5%) tested. Reflex-induced changes in reflectance patterns were unique to the participant/ear, but similar across activators (electrodes) within a given ear. In addition, reflectance values at or above 1000 Hz were affected most by activating the stapedial reflex, even in ears with clinically normal 226 Hz admittance. This is a higher-frequency range than has been reported for acoustically evoked reflex-induced reflectance changes and is consistent with increased middle ear stiffness at rest. Electrically evoked reflexes could be measured more often with the 678 Hz or the broadband probe compared with the 226 Hz probe tone. Although reflex thresholds were lower with the broadband probe compared with the 678 Hz probe in 16 of 24 conditions, this was not a statistically significant finding (Wilcoxon signed-rank test; p = 0.072).
Conclusions: The applications of wideband acoustic immittance measurements (reflectance and reflexes) should also be considered for ears with CIs. Further work is needed to describe changes across time in ears with CIs to more fully understand the reflectance pattern indicating increased middle ear stiffness and to optimize measuring eSRs with a broadband probe.
DOI : 10.1097/AUD.0000000000000810|1 Disponible en ligne : Oui En ligne : https://login.ezproxy.vinci.be/login?url=http://ovidsp.ovid.com/ovidweb.cgi?T=JS [...] Permalink : https://bib.vinci.be/opac_css/index.php?lvl=notice_display&id=256784
in Ear and hearing > Vol. 41, n°4 (Juillet-aout 2020) . - p. 883-895[article]Evidence of a Vestibular Origin for Crossed-Sternocleidomastoid Muscle Responses to Air-Conducted Sound / Rachael L. Taylor in Ear and hearing, Vol. 41, n°4 (Juillet-aout 2020)
Titre : Evidence of a Vestibular Origin for Crossed-Sternocleidomastoid Muscle Responses to Air-Conducted Sound Type de document : Article Auteurs : Rachael L. Taylor ; Roger W. Winton ; Sally M. Rosengren ; Emma C. Argaet ; Miriam S. Welgampola Année de publication : 2020 Article en page(s) : p. 896-906 Langues : Anglais (eng) Descripteurs : HE Vinci
Electromyographie ; Potentiels évoqués vestibulaires myogéniques (cVEMP) (mVEMP) (oVEMP) ; SACULE ; Utricule
Résumé : Objectives: Small, excitatory surface potentials can sometimes be recorded from the contralateral sternocleidomastoid muscle (SCM) following monaural acoustic stimulation. Little is known about the physiological properties of these crossed reflexes. In this study, we sought the properties of crossed SCM responses and through comparison with other cochlear and vestibular myogenic potentials, their likely receptor origin.
Design: Surface potentials were recorded from the ipsilateral and contralateral SCM and postauricular (PAM) muscles of 11 healthy volunteers, 4 patients with superior canal dehiscence and 1 with profound hearing loss. Air-conducted clicks of 105 dB nHL and tone bursts (250 to 4000 Hz) of 100 dB nHL were presented monaurally through TDH 49 headphones during head elevation. Click-evoked responses were recorded under two conditions of gaze in random order: gaze straight ahead and rotated hard toward the contralateral recording electrodes. Amplitudes (corrected and uncorrected) and latencies for crossed SCM responses were compared with vestibular (ipsilateral SCM) and cochlear (PAM) responses between groups and across the different recording conditions.
Results: Surface waveforms were biphasic; positive-negative for the ipsilateral SCM, and negative-positive for the contralateral SCM and PAM. There were significant differences in the amplitudes and latencies (p = 0.004) for click responses of healthy controls across recording sites. PAM responses had the largest mean-corrected amplitudes (2.3 +/- 2.8) and longest latencies (13.0 +/- 1.2 msec), compared with ipsilateral (1.6 +/- 0.5; 12.0 +/- 0.7 msec) and contralateral (0.8 +/- 0.3; 10.4 +/- 1.0 msec) SCM responses. Uncorrected amplitudes and muscle activation for PAM increased by 104.4% and 46.8% with lateral gaze respectively, whereas SCM responses were not significantly affected. Click responses of patients with superior canal dehiscence followed a similar latency, amplitude, and gaze modulation trend as controls. SCM responses were preserved in the patient with profound hearing loss, yet all PAM were absent. There were significant differences in the frequency tuning of the three reflexes (p
Conclusions: Properties of crossed SCM responses were similar, though not identical, to those of ipsilateral SCM responses and are likely to be predominantly vestibular in origin. They are unlikely to represent volume conduction from the PAM as they were unaffected by lateral gaze, were shorter in latency, and had different tuning properties. The influence of crossed vestibulo-collic pathways should be considered when interpreting cervical vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials recorded under conditions of binaural stimulation.
DOI : 10.1097/AUD.0000000000000813|1 Disponible en ligne : Oui En ligne : https://login.ezproxy.vinci.be/login?url=http://ovidsp.ovid.com/ovidweb.cgi?T=JS [...] Permalink : https://bib.vinci.be/opac_css/index.php?lvl=notice_display&id=256785
in Ear and hearing > Vol. 41, n°4 (Juillet-aout 2020) . - p. 896-906[article]Effects of Cognitive Load on Pure-Tone Audiometry Thresholds in Younger and Older Adults / Antje Heinrich in Ear and hearing, Vol. 41, n°4 (Juillet-aout 2020)
Titre : Effects of Cognitive Load on Pure-Tone Audiometry Thresholds in Younger and Older Adults Type de document : Article Auteurs : Antje Heinrich ; Melanie A. Ferguson ; Sven L. Mattys Année de publication : 2020 Article en page(s) : p. 907-917 Langues : Anglais (eng) Descripteurs : HE Vinci
Charge mentale ; Son pur ; Sujet âgé
Résumé : Objectives: Cognitive load (CL) impairs listeners' ability to comprehend sentences, recognize words, and identify speech sounds. Recent findings suggest that this effect originates in a disruption of low-level perception of acoustic details. Here, we attempted to quantify such a disruption by measuring the effect of CL (a two-back task) on pure-tone audiometry (PTA) thresholds. We also asked whether the effect of CL on PTA was greater in older adults, on account of their reduced ability to divide cognitive resources between simultaneous tasks. To specify the mechanisms and representations underlying the interface between auditory and cognitive processes, we contrasted CL requiring visual encoding with CL requiring auditory encoding. Finally, the link between the cost of performing PTA under CL, working memory, and speech-in-noise (SiN) perception was investigated and compared between younger and older participants.
Design: Younger and older adults (44 in each group) did a PTA test at 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 kHz pure tones under CL and no CL. CL consisted of a visual two-back task running throughout the PTA test. The two-back task involved either visual encoding of the stimuli (meaningless images) or subvocal auditory encoding (a rhyme task on written nonwords). Participants also underwent a battery of SiN tests and a working memory test (letter number sequencing).
Results: Younger adults showed elevated PTA thresholds under CL, but only when CL involved subvocal auditory encoding. CL had no effect when it involved purely visual encoding. In contrast, older adults showed elevated thresholds under both types of CL. When present, the PTA CL cost was broadly comparable in younger and older adults (approximately 2 dB HL). The magnitude of PTA CL cost did not correlate significantly with SiN perception or working memory in either age group. In contrast, PTA alone showed strong links to both SiN and letter number sequencing in older adults.
Conclusions: The results show that CL can exert its effect at the level of hearing sensitivity. However, in younger adults, this effect is only found when CL involves auditory mental representations. When CL involves visual representations, it has virtually no impact on hearing thresholds. In older adults, interference is found in both conditions. The results suggest that hearing progresses from engaging primarily modality-specific cognition in early adulthood to engaging cognition in a more undifferentiated way in older age. Moreover, hearing thresholds measured under CL did not predict SiN perception more accurately than standard PTA thresholds.
DOI : 10.1097/AUD.0000000000000812|1 Disponible en ligne : Oui En ligne : https://login.ezproxy.vinci.be/login?url=http://ovidsp.ovid.com/ovidweb.cgi?T=JS [...] Permalink : https://bib.vinci.be/opac_css/index.php?lvl=notice_display&id=256787
in Ear and hearing > Vol. 41, n°4 (Juillet-aout 2020) . - p. 907-917[article]The Effect of Interphase Gap on Neural Response of the Electrically Stimulated Cochlear Nerve in Children With Cochlear Nerve Deficiency and Children With Normal-Sized Cochlear Nerves / Shuman He in Ear and hearing, Vol. 41, n°4 (Juillet-aout 2020)
Titre : The Effect of Interphase Gap on Neural Response of the Electrically Stimulated Cochlear Nerve in Children With Cochlear Nerve Deficiency and Children With Normal-Sized Cochlear Nerves Type de document : Article Auteurs : Shuman He ; Lei Xu ; Jeffrey Skidmore ; Fuh-Cherng Jeng ; [et al.] Année de publication : 2020 Article en page(s) : p. 918-934 Langues : Anglais (eng) Descripteurs : Autres descripteurs
Deficience auditive cochleaire
Mots-clés : Electrically evoked auditory compound action potentials, Interphase gap, Neural survival Résumé : Objectives: This study aimed to compare the effects of increasing the interphase gap (IPG) on the neural response of the electrically stimulated cochlear nerve (CN) between children with CN deficiency (CND) and children with normal-sized CNs.
Design: Study participants included 30 children with CND and 30 children with normal-sized CNs. All subjects were implanted with a Cochlear Nucleus device with the internal electrode array 24RE[CA] in the test ear. The stimulus was a charge-balanced, cathodic leading, biphasic pulse with a pulse-phase duration of 50 [mu]sec. For each subject, the electrically evoked compound action potential (eCAP) input/output (I/O) function was measured for 6 IPGs (i.e., 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, and 42 [mu]sec) at 3 electrode locations across the electrode array. For each subject and each testing electrode, the highest stimulation used to measure the eCAP I/O function was the maximum comfortable level measured with an IPG of 42 [mu]sec. Dependent variables (DVs) were the maximum eCAP amplitude, the eCAP threshold, and the slope of the eCAP I/O function estimated using both linear and sigmoidal regression functions. For each DV, the size of the IPG effect was defined as the proportional change relative to the result measured for the 7 [mu]sec IPG at the basal electrode location. Generalized linear mixed effect models with subject group, electrode location, and IPG duration as the fixed effects and subject as the random effect were used to compare these DVs and the size of the IPG effect on these DVs.
Results: Children with CND showed smaller maximum eCAP amplitudes, higher eCAP thresholds, and smaller slopes of eCAP I/O function estimated using either linear or sigmoidal regression function than children with normal-sized CNs. Increasing the IPG duration resulted in larger maximum eCAP amplitudes, lower eCAP thresholds and larger slopes of eCAP I/O function estimated using sigmoidal regression function at all three electrode locations in both study groups. Compared with children with normal-sized CNs, children with CND showed larger IPG effects on both the maximum eCAP amplitude and the slope of the eCAP I/O function estimated using either linear or sigmoidal regression function, and a smaller IPG effect on the eCAP threshold than those measured in children with normal-sized CNs.
Conclusions: Increasing the IPG increases responsiveness of the electrically stimulated CN in both children with CND and children with normal-sized CNs. The maximum eCAP amplitude and the slope of the eCAP I/O function measured in human listeners with poorer CN survival are more sensitive to changes in the IPG. In contrast, the eCAP threshold in listeners with poorer CN survival is less sensitive to increases in the IPG. Further studies are warranted to identify the best parameters of eCAP results for predicting CN survival before this eCAP testing paradigm can be used as a clinical tool for evaluating neural health for individual cochlear implant patients.
DOI : 10.1097/AUD.0000000000000815|1 Disponible en ligne : Non En ligne : https://login.ezproxy.vinci.be/login?url= Permalink : https://bib.vinci.be/opac_css/index.php?lvl=notice_display&id=256790
in Ear and hearing > Vol. 41, n°4 (Juillet-aout 2020) . - p. 918-934[article]